To contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented broad national climate change plans (national contributions, NDCs). These are not yet sufficient to meet the temperature targets, but the agreement sets out the way forward. The Paris Agreement is the first universal and legally binding global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. The agreement recognises the role of non-stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The agreement includes a commitment by all countries to reduce emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. The EU and its Member States are among the approximately 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU officially ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries, from which at least 55% of global emissions escape, had to deposit their instruments of ratification. It will also allow the parties to gradually increase their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement.
The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The goal is to increase countries` climate goals over time. To this end, the agreement provides for two review processes, each with a five-year cycle. The Paris Agreement bridges the gap between current policies and climate neutrality to be achieved by the end of the century. (a) 1.5 degree target: Countries have set a target of limiting global temperature increase to 1.5 degrees if possible. The tightening of the target (formerly 2 degrees) was due in particular to pressure from the countries of the South, as they are already suffering enormous damage due to prolonged droughts, elsewhere massive storms and floods and have recorded many deaths. .